We can imagine a quantum theory of gravity, at least in principle. Like with the other forces, there would be a mediator particle, proactively called the graviton , which would carry the signal. We could even imagine probing smaller and smaller scales, and seeing more and more virtual gravitons being sent between particles. The problem is that on smaller scales, there are higher and higher energies.
The nucleus of an atom requires much more of a punch to break apart than peeling an electron off the outside, for instance. On the smallest scales, the swarm of insanely high energy virtual gravitons would produce an incredible energy density, and that's where we really run into problems.
Gravity is supposed to see all forms of energy, but here we are generating an infinite amount of highly energetic particles which in turn generates a huge gravitational field. Maybe you see the difficulty. At the end of the day, every calculation involves a whole bunch of infinities flying around. I am required by long tradition to point out that we have no freakin' clue how physics is supposed to work on scales smaller than the Planck Length. On those scales, quantum mechanics says that miniscule black holes can pop into and out of existence through sheer randomness, suggesting spacetime itself gets pockmarked if you look at it too closely.
We try to avoid these collisions of theories through a process known as "Renormalization" thrown in as fan service for the experts.
Renormalization is simply a fancy way of saying that we only do the calculation down to a certain scale and then stop. It gets rid of the infinities in most theories, and allows us to carry on with our lives. Since most forces only involve taking differences between two energies, it doesn't really matter if you add or subtract a constant to all of your numbers even, ostensibly, if the constant you're adding is infinity.
The differences work out fine. Not everyone is so sanguine with this. The great Richard Feynman noted :. The shell game that we play. But no matter how clever the word, it is still what I would call a dippy process! Having to resort to such hocus-pocus has prevented us from proving that the theory of quantum electrodynamics is mathematically self-consistent.
Those objections aside, things get even worse when we talk about gravity. The thing is, because unlike with electromagnetism gravity affects all particles, those infinite energies mean different curvature. Renormalization doesn't even seem to be an option for gravity.
We can't make the infinities go away. So we don't have a theory of quantum gravity, but we have some idea of what a successful theory must be like. For instance, there needs to be a graviton, and because gravity seems to be able to extend over all space, the graviton like the photon needs to be massless. Massive mediators like the W and Z bosons can only operate over a very short range. But there's more although it's a little more technical so the squeamish may want to turn away. It turns out that there is a unique relationship between classical and quantum theories.
For instance, electromagnetism is generated by electric charges and currents. The observance of these particles depends from frequency of the discrete energy conservation. Due to the lost of the initial boundary frame, all space-time models break down at the singularity. To eliminate the singularity, the space-time should have internal constraint holding the dynamics at boundary, because the initial position is not an independent free coordinate.
The initial state of minimum space-time identity is the internal constraint of the space-time, which determines how to go from contraction phase to the expansion phase without singularity. The space-time frame by this concept has no internal constraint therefore has to move to the singularity and the initial state of universe should start from a single point having infinite density.
This is the unproved conjecture of general relativity. At continuous energy conservation, an event with any size has a trend to move to the equilibrium: to remove a system from the equilibrium one additional parameter is needed which can be the application of an external energy. The asymmetry of space-time boundaries is the fundamental basis for discrete existence of universe. In some theories, dynamical space-time has been discussed but there was not shown that this dynamics is due to the asymmetry of boundaries. The discrete conservation of matter and energy within discrete space-time frame gives a non-geometrical status to the space —time phenomenon.
Presently why the particles acquire the mass is not known. The problem of this formulation is invariance of mass-energy relation, fixed by speed of light. Therefore, in discrete conservation of energy there is no invariant rest mass, mapped within discrete space-time frame. Newtonian law does not explain the origin of force that is why the nature of mass remains unanswered. If force is needed to change the velocity, then Newtonian inertia appears to describe the magnitude of change in the form of mass.
If the action of force, as is shown in 6 , is needed to hold the initial state of a body then it is needed to hold the existence of matter in space-time frame in the form of mass. The problem of Newtonian law is that mass, which is invariant during velocity differentiation but affects to the acceleration.
In accordance with the model 6 , the entity called mass is the resulting quantity, generated from discrete energy conservation. With cyclic discrete energy conservation there is no any preferred reference frame, which could display inertial or relativistic mass. The non-virtual matter particle is created simultaneously with the generation of non-virtual space-time frame: mass is the part of energy to be conserved in space phase: the dense space phase, formed through change of frequency of correlation of space-time variables leads to the generation of different masses responsible for different particles.
The density of space phase is determined by the Eigen value 6 , therefore mass is not constant, it changes with the change of frequency. Due to this phenomenon electron has no constant mass, it transforms to other families as it moves through space. Discrete energy conservation eliminates the infinity of the energy, produced during contraction of space phase to minimum size 6 through re-alignment and coupling with the time phase. The time reversal asymmetry of space-time boundaries arises from discrete energy conservation where forward and backward directions have different initial energetic conditions.
Fraction of time is needed to complete a full cycle when the minimum portion of the space phase passes through inversion frame from negative to the positive direction. The equation 9 describes total spin symmetry of matter-antimatter interactions. The spin of right-handed photons is equal to the sum of the two half spins of left-handed particles which hold conservation of energy, charge and momentum. The super partner of gamma rays is two pair of four fermions 9 which generates re-alignment of the particles in space-time reversal cycles.
As can be seen, without composite photon it is impossible to describe generation of mass. The mechanism of equation 9 is in agreement with the results of Stefano Profumo[ 9 ], who found that electron, reacting with the surrounding dark matter could fuse into a heavy version of electron and when it returns to the initial state radiates gamma rays. Light quanta do not have independent existence and cannot hold fixed amount of energy without space-time structure. On this basis, it is clear why matter-carrying ingredient of Eigen value is negatively charged.
The scheme 9 involving inversion operations describe charge and spin conservations. In accordance with the equation 9 , electrons are the light photons, localized in the virtual space-time frame that is why all electrons have the same charge. When a particle form non-virtual space-time frame it became a different particle. From model 6 and scheme 9 follows, that removal of last portion of matter from vacuum needs more energy than background state. Therefore, the boundary space-time unit participates in the coordinate inversion and grows of particles, which leads to the expansion of space.
In discrete energy conservation concept the initial and end states are vector fields. The consumed energy is not equivalent to the scattered energy, which leads to the asymmetric space-time boundaries. The space phase virtual fermions is less symmetric than time phase, therefore energy conservation has handiness in direction of energy consumption and the consumption of energy is accelerated.
The interference of space-time phases at background state 9 is not linear and coupling of the matter-anti matter particles forms intermediate loop boundary of mixed matter-anti matter frame: electron is produced from neutrino side while positron is generated from photonic side. Due to the different spin for bosons and fermions, the alignment is directed to the matter side with the shift of handiness from the left to the right consumption of energy in space phase. This is the origin why matter spin has to be twice less than bosons.
Therefore, the asymmetry in spin and in the boundary of space-time variables is the origin of the matter of universe. The transformation from spin one to half spin has to lead to the energy loss but this energy is accumulated in the pion and kaon fields. Leptons are products of virtual space-time while baryons are location of quarks in the non-virtual space-time frame, which makes radiation of matter and energy non-invariant. The quantum theories treat right and left-handed particles symmetrically which leads to the invariance of Lagrangian action.
This is the problem all of physical theories. Background state 9 connects all conservation laws except asymmetry of space-time boundaries. The general principle of super symmetry and action invariance can be realized when the change of the energy of bosons, relative to its initial state, is equal to the change of the energy of under action fermions relative to the applied energy.
In this case, the laws can remain the same for both systems. The question, which has to be answered here, is the nature and origin of the borrowed energy. The unanswered question of quantum physics is how to describe energy of empty space if contains any kind of energy.
Relativity v quantum mechanics – the battle for the universe | News | The Guardian
In accordance with the model 6 , the space-time can exist only through interaction with other space-time field. The baryonic space-time structure of matter exists in interaction with the non-baryonic matter field forming leptonic matter. The existence of neutrinos in three flavors requires the existence of light photons also in three flavors similar to the equation 9 :. The Y , G and Z describe different flavors of photons having different frequency. At this state, the energy is not dispersive Eigen value is minus one and the virtual photon particles are indistinguishable.
Based on scheme we may extend our analysis on the wave —particle duality of the light. Light is wave, but presently it is not known how it is waving. In accordance with the special relativity light travels through vacuum with constant speed but this concept does not explain what medium has a vacuum, which carries the light with the constant speed. Maxwell equations also do not involve any medium to carry light waves.
Due to the discrete energy conservation, light travels in space-time phases through polarization of wave and particle properties. In accordance with the equations 6 and 7 , light does not propagate without momentum which constraints propagation of light wave in space. The space-time frame and light energy radiation are symmetric in discrete mode.
Quantum Mechanics vs. General Relativity
Discrete energy conservation and boundary mapped space-time concept describe this problem differently: light is the discrete identity, which produces its derivative space-time frame, and any observable identity is the interaction with this frame. Therefore, light does not exist independent of space-time frame. In accordance with the discrete energy conservation concept, it is impossible to shift space-time phases of a particle having the same spin unit of its constituents.
Spin is the result of energy conservation in different phases, which leads to the generation of direction. At discrete conservation of energy, the background state of annihilation 9 does not lead to the divergence due to the conservation of finite amount of energy within asymmetric boundary of space and time phases. The alignment of the ingredients of the scheme 9 is the polarization of neutral leptons to fermions. The electric charge keeps photon in the form of gluon, when charge is annihilated gluon also disappears.
Sign up to the long read email
In real world due to the discrete correlation with the applied energy, the anti neutrino has right handed helicity. In this exchange interaction, the top quark is conjugated with its weak isospin partner of bottom quark. The boundary energy of top quark does not limit frequency of decay during its coupling with the up quark.
Therefore, particles, which exchange energy, are bosons while particles exchanging momentum are fermions. With other definition particles carrying energy in time phase are bosons but conserving energy in space phase are fermions. The exchange of energy does not affect the wave function Eigen state while exchange of momentum changes the sign of the wave function. The phenomenon, which make light to move and generate discrete radiation is the discrete energy conservation within space and time phases.
The model 6 in this case explains why correlated electromagnetic interaction of proton with electron is stronger than the reverse weak force of neutron decay to proton and electron. In classic way, a matter is the quadratic product of the two fields and coupling of space and time phases gives the potential of the observable frame. This principle is similar to the quantum mechanics concept that the square modulus of wave function is associated with the probability of observing the object. In quantum field theory, the energy of vacuum is zero, but formation of mass requires the positive sign of energy between the vacuum and the next lowest energy state.
The generation of energy as a quadratic product of coupling of opposite space-time vector fields can be described as follows. The quadratic quantity of space phase describes the energy density in space while the quadratic quantity of time phase describes frequency of the change of this phase. Coupling of opposite charge carrying space-time vector fields is similar to the coupling of matter-antimatter particles 6 :.
Coupling of matter-antimatter particles of the equations 9 is similar to the scheme Here arises very important question why background space-time coupling should leads to the generation of top-bottom quarks. The top-bottom quarks are similar to other quarks but due to the high energy, they decay fast and do not form non-virtual space-time structure of baryons. The magnitude of the background energy 9 is fixed within boundary of space-time that is why top quark mass does not move to the infinity. In accordance with the energy conservation 9 , d-u transformation of quarks cannot be realized by simple emission of the W — bosons because in this case the energy is not conserved.
Therefore, energy and identity conservations in quarks transformations have to be realized through coupling of t-b transformations with one side with u-d, from other side with s-c quarks where the total energy and momentum are discretely conserved:. In accordance with the equation 9 , the identity of a particle can be determined with the charged particles but electromagnetism is carried by neutral photons.
On this basis the particle performance of baryon in space-time frame, is carried by charged particle that is why the electromagnetic force cannot hold alone the identity conservation of baryons. In accordance with the conditions , conservation of causality of action is realized with correlation of end and initial states through [ T-B ] bi-mesons [ ss- - bb- — tt--uu- ] which regulates discrete exchange of energy within nucleons and background polarization state.
Top meson has to be created from anti top and up quark while anti top meson forms from top quark and anti up quark. B meson simultaneously is produced from b-anti quark b-bar and d -quark. Its antiparticle B- anti meson is formed from b -quark and anti d -anti quark. The discrete performance of two nuclear frames is the requirement of discrete identity conservation of nuclear within uud-udd and ssc-ccs nucleons coupled with the t-b transformations.
The ssc-ccs play a role of isotopic nucleon. This is the inverse spontaneous symmetry breaking. This is the explanation why nuclear force is short ranged. Depending from Eigen value, meson field can be real or virtual particle. At this condition, there is no difference between electromagnetic force and gravitation. The heavier the meson the shorter is time allowed for the exchange process therefore only asymmetry of space-time boundaries allows existing of heavy top mesons.
The mystery of conventional physics why the pion should have mass is explained with the discrete energy conservation within matter-antimatter particles, located within space-time phases. Separation of quark-anti quark pair is impossible due to the impossibility of separation of energy, distributed within space and time phases. In accordance with the quantum principles, quarks would radiate energy of interaction and dissipate their motion.
Model 6 explains this phenomenon: the constant motion of quarks in baryons is in invariant coupling with the background state: at constant coupling with the background, state uniform transformation within p-n pairs gives to the quarks identity conservation with the symmetric wave function. At these conditions, the quarks have the same symmetric performance with the particles of background photons.
By quantum physics, it is hard to keep electric charge in a small pack because it repels itself. Photon and electron ingredients of the background state 9 are the dynamic products of the geometric object — space-time vectors where generation of space S1 transforms antiparticle to particle while generation of time instant t 1 transforms particle to antiparticle. In accordance with the model 6 , the phenomenon called parity does not describe inversion of a position of a static body through spatial coordinate but the parity of two dynamical space-time systems.
Violation of parity is the result of non-invariance of the action-response of two systems, which generates direction of time: without local violation of parity, the global symmetry is not conserved and there cannot be energy conservation and direction of time. That is why P violation is associated with the CP violation. The vector bosons and fermions to acquire masses the gauge invariance Lagrangian and new scalar boson Higgs field is predicted to exist.
The model 6 connects strong and with weak interactions as the resulting quantity from action —response parity while Yukawa formula [ 10 ] of the strong force does not reveals the resulting quantity. Yukawa suggested that nuclear force could not be reduced to the electromagnetic interactions between charged particles. The same conclusion follows from Gell-Mann mechanism of quark interactions locating quarks in baryon octets within certain quantum numbers. The important conclusion of Gell-Mann [ 11 ] is that the strong force between quarks will degenerate if the strong force is the only force holding the quarks within nucleons.
In accordance with the model 4 , one force cannot conserve the strong nuclear force and this force has to be uniformly coupled with the energy, recycled to the nucleons. In this case, the coupling constant does not diminish with the change of the space within the meson field. The model 4 meets this statement of quantum field theory. When the Eigen value is equal to one the system is strongly coupled with the action. This condition corresponds to the negative value of Eigen value. If the Eigen value is minus one the spin and momentum counter aligned, therefore the particle is left handed.
The important question here is why fermions are half integer particles and should obey Pauli principle. The three jet events are the result of space-time frame and one of the three jets has unique property under the strong interactions to realize coupling with the constant energy. That is why strangeness is conserved during creation but is not conserved in decay process.
The Marriage Of Einstein's Theory Of Relativity And Quantum Physics Depends On The Pull Of Gravity
Based on the mathematical structure of the model 6 , at constant coupling the quarks can never be liberated from the hadrons. Standard Model describes the origin of forces in term of local symmetries. Model 6 shows that every local space-time frame is commuted with the energetic field, which constrains each other from the linear displacement.
On this basis, the space-time frame and energy field have no independent existence and their distribution is determined by discrete energy conservation through background state. The space-time model based on discrete energy conservation produces symmetric and anti-symmetric dynamical functions describing the direction of decay and the nature of produced particles.
In accordance with the model 6 , the symmetric and anti-symmetric functions can be transformed to each other depending from energy and identity conservation laws: when the Eigen value is positive, the function leads to the hadronic transformations.
The action-response parity of the model 6 shows that all the interactions four forces can be divided into two groups: two dimensional two body performance matter —anti matter annihilation with SU 2 symmetry group and three body interactions with commutation of SU 2 symmetry with U 1 group giving three body confined resonance particles. Due to the operation of space-time waves within discrete symmetry, all electric charges have the symmetry in their unit.
Very important question, which may arise from three family resonance performance, is Pauli Exclusion Principle, which states that two fermions such as quarks cannot occupy a quantum state at a given time. Model 6 shows that the existence of the two quarks with the symmetric wave function in classic way requires discrete correlation one of the quarks in proton-neutron baryons with the discrete conservation of the action.
Yukawa showed that [ 10 ] for some reason nuclear forces are saturated which lead to the appearance of different concepts for explanation of this phenomenon. On this basis the SU 2 discrete symmetry of proton-neutron transition kaon meson field is coherent with the SU 2 symmetry of background transitions. At Eigen value, one the strong interaction of the quarks is confined.
The flavor interactions 9 show that the kaon field is necessary to realize SU 2 symmetry and parity conservation within proton-neutron discrete transformations to realize discrete parity conservation within uud-duu and ssc-ccs nucleons. Here is necessary to explain why three generation of particles, particularly strange s and charm c quarks are needed in particle physics[ 11 ]. Before we showed that if, correlation of different events with the energy resources has the same coupling they are simultaneous in time having different space phase.
The invariance of Eigen value needs simultaneity in different phases. Therefore, identity conservation of the nuclear requires its discrete invariance within different space phases, formed by discrete existence of uud-duu and ssc-ccs frames. Recently was observed that quarks treat the right and left hand differently and pick out a direction in space while in empty space they treat the left and right hand without any difference. On this basis, the strong interaction should violate the parity as well.
Model 6 explains this phenomenon and shows that strong interactions can hold the parity only through discrete energy conservation while in the absence of constant coupling the strong interaction has to select one-handed direction. The discrete energy conservation and action-response parity are the necessary laws of nature to give different shapes to the different events: without discrete conservation of energy and non-invariant action all the events and bodies would form non separable mass without any shape and structure.
Therefore, formation of stable non-virtual matter frame needs application of additional intermediate force. Due to the conservation of energy in discrete mode, the intermediate force is necessary to recycle the energy to the nuclear. It is known that the square of the parity transformation is the identity conservation. Applying two parity transformations is equivalent to no transformation.
Therefore, the condition 6 meets the requirement of identity conservation generating discrete invariance of action-response parity. Model 6 involves non-invariance action instead of Yang-Mills gauge Lagrangian. This is the mathematical proof why quarks can never be elaborated from the hadrons. By conventional particle theory when matter and antimatter collides, they should destroy each other, leaving behind nothing but only energy. In this concept energy as the resulting quantity is not localized with the lost of matter carrying momentum.
In accordance with discrete energy conservation, the anti-quark is the discrete partner of the quark and they exist with asymmetric boundaries.
At small scale, the asymmetry is close to the antimatter structure, while for high space scale it is asymmetric structure of matter. The non-relativistic theory does not have this feature. The framework in which quantum mechanics and special relativity are successfully reconciled is called quantum field theory. It is based on three basic principles: two of them, of course, are quantum mechanics and special relativity. The third one, which I wish to emphasize, is the postulate that elementary particles are point-like objects of zero intrinsic size. In practice, they are smeared over a region of space due to quantum effects, but their descripton in the basic equations is as mathematical points.
Now the general principles on which quantum field theory are based actually allow for many different consistent theories to be constructed.